Liquidity is used to understand how easily an asset can be bought or sold without affecting its price, also known as market liquidity. When an asset is in high demand, there is high liquidity, so it will be easier to find a buyer for that asset. Cash is considered the most liquid asset as it is very stable, readily accessible, and easily spent – therefore, cash is often used to gauge the liquidity of other markets. Further, conglomerates of this nature may struggle more generally in moving cash between operations in order to service different short term cash flow demands specific to each entity. Choosing the right partners, in particular banks, in order to assist in this movement of cash can be crucial to the success of the enterprise. This can lead to a distorted view of the amount of working capital available to the firm.

At the start of 2020, the stock market was at its all-time high, and few people expected the world would be so hard hit by COVID-19. The adverse economic impact of this global pandemic was liquidity management swift and relentless. Lockdowns created an unexpected economic disruption, and many businesses saw sales dwindle to a catastrophically low level and liquidity risk drastically increase.

What Types of Assets Are Considered Liquid?

Chances are you can pinpoint exactly where your cash flow gets bogged down. Perhaps your sales have dropped in the last year due to the pandemic, or supply chain expenses have increased. In either case, you’ll want to implement a cash management solution for your business.

liquidity management meaning

The closest cause of a bank’s demise is mostly a liquidity issue that makes it impossible to survive a classic “bank run” or, nowadays, a modern equivalent, like an inability to approach the debt markets for new funding. It is completely possible for the economic value of a bank’s assets to be more than enough to wrap up all of its demands and yet for that bank to go bust as its assets are illiquid and its liabilities have short-term maturities. If business leaders don’t thoroughly understand liquidity risk sources and the principles of measuring and managing liquidity risk, insolvency risk skyrockets.


But liquidity management is far from straightforward and brings with it many challenges that treasury and finance teams must constantly be aware of. While planning for the year ahead, managers are wary that firms cash inflows can be unpredictable. In essence, liquidity management is the basic concept of the access to readily available cash in order to fund short-term investments, cover debts, and pay for goods and services. Investors still use liquidity ratios to evaluate the value of a company’s stocks or bonds, but they also care about a different kind of liquidity management.

liquidity management meaning

Like DSO, DPO varies hugely by industry, and DPO trend is more important to analyze than actual DPO value. For example, if a business is trying to preserve its cash reserves to purchase new equipment, its month-on-month DPO value might rise because it is taking more time to pay its trade creditors. A business in a profit crisis will not only see a decline in its profitability margins but also a decline in its top-line revenue. Consequently, to combat negative profitability margins and remain in operation, it will need to start dipping into cash reserves.

We are the bridge between finance and treasury

Securities issued in large volume and by large enterprises have greater liquidity, because they do more creditworthy securities. Theoretically, it is possible to withdraw all demand deposits in a single day, yet their average balances show remarkable stability in normal times. We are concerned about bank liquidity levels as banks are important to the financial system. We have witnessed in the past the extreme form of damage that an economy can undergo when credit dries up in a crisis. This is because it supports the resources to reclaim from substantial losses of any nature.

Transform your treasury from an operational to a critical business growth engine with account structuring solutions and agile liquidity management architected with you in mind. J.P. Morgan is a global leader in financial services, offering solutions to the world’s most important corporations, governments and institutions in more than 100 countries. As announced in early 2018, JPMorgan Chase will deploy $1.75 billion in philanthropic capital around the world by 2023. We also lead volunteer service activities for employees in local communities by utilizing our many resources, including those that stem from access to capital, economies of scale, global reach and expertise. Access to this information at the start of the day means that treasury has more time to build and analyze global cash forecasts. And the continued use of technology allows organizations to compare forecasts to actuals for any horizon to help improve forecast accuracy.

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System The Federal Reserve, the central bank of the United States, provides the nation with a safe, flexible, and stable monetary and financial system. Covers applicable definitions and provides an overview of unsafe and unsound banking practices. SAS analytics solutions transform data into intelligence, inspiring customers around the world to make bold new discoveries that drive progress. Explore insights from marketing movers and shakers on a variety of timely topics. Let us help you navigate the 3PM environment and achieve your e‑commerce goals to hold, transact and optimize third-party funds around the world through physical and virtual accounts. Realize the power of global presence with local expertise to achieve visibility, control and optimization of your working capital.

The Oracle Banking Liquidity Management application supports a multi-branch, multi-currency liquidity management structure using architecture of ‘System Accounts’. This enables the system to keep track of balances in accounts in the structure, calculate interest on the accounts in the structure as well as track the history of the sweep/ pool structure. A pull on liquidity is generated when cash outflows happen too quickly or when a company’s access to commercial or financial credit is limited. Take liquidity into account when you examine your finances so you can assess your cash flow, plan for the future and prepare for the unexpected.

Unplanned Capital Expenditures

Northern Rock suffered from funding liquidity risk in September 2007 following the subprime crisis. The firm suffered from liquidity issues despite being solvent at the time, because maturing loans and deposits could not be renewed in the short-term money markets. In response, the FSA now places greater supervisory focus on liquidity risk especially with regard to “high-impact retail firms”.

liquidity management meaning

If you need help measuring and managing liquidity risk, reach out to 8020 before a downward spiral has begun. You can also learn more about our cash flow forecasting services by downloading the resource below. Liquidityis a bank’s ability to meet its cash and collateral obligations without sustaining unacceptable losses.Liquidity riskrefers to how a bank’s inability to meet its obligations threatens its financial position or existence. Institutions manage their liquidity risk through effective asset liability management . Under these difficult circumstances, banks which have in place an enhanced liquidity management system will find themselves better at managing fluctuating demands on liquidity. If cash inflows are lower than forecasted, it can mean that you won’t be able to pay your suppliers, lenders, or other obligatory payments.

Lack of Cash Flow Management

Firms need the ability to meet these commitments – not just at the end of each day, but any point throughout. The financial crisis of 2008 highlighted the need for banks to improve their liquidity risk management, which includes the management of intraday liquidity risk. The FSA’s liquidity regime included intraday liquidity as a key risk driver and required that banks calibrate their liquid asset buffers considering their need for liquidity intraday, in both normal and stressed circumstances. Balance sheet management, through strategic ALM, is the process of managing and optimizing assets, liabilities and cash flows to meet obligations. Effective ALM not only protects financial institutions against risks of falling net interest margins and funding crunches, it also offers an opportunity to enhance value by optimizing reward versus risk.

This process involves two primary financial risks, interest rate and foreign exchange, and directly relates to sound over all liquidity management. In order to manage the firm’s liquidity effectively, corporate treasury and finance teams need to have a clear view of the company’s cash position, as this will help them identify any liquidity gaps that need to be addressed. This means finding a solution for fast cash positioning and carrying out real-time cash modeling and forecasting.

How Can a Bank Achieve Liquidity

The risk that the company does not have sufficient liquidity available to cover its short-term needs. While this can be addressed by raising cash through credit lines or by selling short-term securities, there may be occasions when companies can’t access additional liquidity from external sources. Maintaining a strong cash position is critical for any company, but it is especially important for businesses that operate on tight margins. For these companies, even a small dip in cash flow can have a significant impact on operations.

Depending on the size of the debts within the context of the company, firms often prefer to have outstanding debts and cash to be able to pay them, rather than neither. Operational risks like human errors as well as fraud can be detected and prevented by having the right systems, processes, and controls in place. Once operational risks are tackled properly, liquidity risk decreases significantly. Cutting costs is always a challenge, but it is especially important during periods of tight cash flow. A good place to start is by evaluating your company’s current expenses and seeing if there are any areas where costs can be reduced. Supply chain management is the process of coordinating the flow of goods and resources from suppliers to customers.

A firm is also exposed to liquidity risk if markets on which it depends are subject to loss of liquidity. DSO is calculated based on average accounts receivable divided by total credit sales times 365 days. A low DSO implies that a business takes a shorter time to collect its payments from credit sales and vice versa. It is the process of the exposure of a bank’s financial condition to adverse movements in interest rates. Changes in interest rates can have significant impact on a banks earnings as well as the underlying economic value of a bank assets, liabilities and off balance sheet items. The payments landscape is evolving rapidly with the expansion of real-time payments, a rise in platform-based businesses, online marketplaces, and currency digitization.

How to mitigate liquidity risk

The liquidity and the Investments are two corners opposite to each other. Integrate your risk management processes.Value complex portfolios and asset classes by integrating portfolio valuation and scenario analyses on a single platform. And instantly assess the potential impact of future market shocks and scenarios on liquidity. As a global leader, we deliver strategic advice and solutions, including capital raising, risk management, and trade finance services to corporations, institutions and governments.

Those who trade assets on the stock market cannot just buy or sell any asset at any time; the buyers need a seller, and the sellers need a buyer. All of these risks can affect the company’s liquidity position in different ways. Corporate treasury teams use a variety of different strategies to manage the risks faced by the organization, and protect the company’s cash from any negative or adverse changes. Like any other aspect of financial management, excellent liquidity management starts with a review of your company’s financial statements. This will give you a clear picture of your current cash position and help you identify any potential shortfalls.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *